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  • Angiography with Stent placement

    If you have a narrowed blood vessel in your kidneys, your doctor may recommend placing a stent (a flexible, mesh tube) to restore blood flow. Your doctor makes a small incision and inserts a catheter with an attached, uninflated balloon to the narrowed vessel using X-ray guidance. The balloon is inflated, and your doctor places the stent in the vessel to hold it open.

  • Bladder Catheterization

    Your doctor may use a catheter to drain excess urine and prevent further damage.

  • Bladder Rehabilitation

    Your doctor may recommend physical rehabilitation therapy to manage bladder-control problems, including inability to urinate due to paralysis, nervous system dysfunction, or other kidney conditions. Specially-trained therapists provide education, physical manipulations, and customized treatment plans to help improve function.

  • Medicine

    Your doctor may prescribe medicines to fight infection, reduce swelling, control pain, or relax your bladder.

  • Surgery

    In some instances, doctors use surgery to treat congenital urogenital anomalies. Your doctor will discuss your options and let you know if surgery is right for you.


  • Blood Tests

    Your doctor may use blood tests to evaluate your condition, such as tests that evaluate blood cell counts, electrolyte levels, and kidney function.

  • Biopsy

    A kidney biopsy is a tissue sample taken from the kidney through a needle and analyzed at a lab. Results help your doctor diagnose the type of kidney disease, assess kidney damage, and determine the best treatment.

  • Cystoscopy

    This test uses a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at the end to look at the lining of your bladder and your urethra.

  • Cystography

    Bladder cystography, also called voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) or micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG), helps doctors diagnose urethra abnormalities or urinary dysfunction, such as bladder-control problems, blockages, or urinary tract infections (UTIs). During the procedure, your bladder is filled with contrast dye and an imaging technologist takes X-rays while you urinate. If your doctor suspects vesicoureteral reflux, they may also take an ultrasound of your kidneys.

  • Renal Scan (Radionuclide Scan)

    This nuclear imaging exam uses a small amount of radiotracer chemical that’s injected into your veins to assess your kidney’s urine production and blood flow. The imaging technologist uses a special camera, called a gamma camera or scanner, to detect the radiotracer from outside your body. Renal scans can identify reduced kidney function that’s caused by injuries, diseases, structural defects, or obstructions.

  • Urinalysis

    Doctors use urine samples to look for red blood cells, white blood cells, infections, or excessive protein in your urine. Your doctor may take a sample during your appointment, arrange urine collection over 24 hours, or take a sample directly from your bladder using a catheter (thin, flexible tube).

  • Urography

    Urography is an imaging test that uses a contrast dye and computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to view your kidneys, bladder, and ureters (tubes that carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder).

  • Urethrography

    Doctors use urethrography to diagnose obstructions, narrowing of the urethra, or other structural issues. The test is used almost exclusively on men. Here, the contrast dye is inserted into the urethra, but does not go all the way into the bladder.