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  • Immunosuppressive Medicines 

    Doctors use a range of medicines to stop the immune system from attacking healthy tissues, including:

    • Corticosteroids: slow the body's immune response to relieve swelling and pain
    • Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs): suppress the immune system broadly to prevent swelling
    • Genetically Engineered Biologics: a newer type of DMARD that targets specific immune functions

    Some of the medicines can be taken orally, but others are given as an injection. Doctors may use ultrasound-guided injections to deliver pain medication, which allows them to locate the area that’s causing pain and guide the injection of medicine directly to the source.

  • Physical Therapy

    Physical therapy strengthens the muscles and ligaments around the joint to improve your range of motion. Physical therapists design stretching and exercise programs and use ultrasound therapy (sound waves), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), hot or cold therapy, and other approaches to help you move more easily, without pain.